Giovanni Toso, Piero Angeletti
Abstract:Multibeam Antennas are becoming more and more important in different applications requiring high performances, flexibility and reconfigurability. In particular, the topic is of interest not only for Space Applications but also for Radar Systems and Mobile Communications (including emerging MIMO for 5G). The course has been previously proposed during EUCAP and IEEE conferences with excellent participation and feedbacks. The course content is updated regularly by the two co-authors who are deeply involved since twenty years in this field.
The objective of this course consists in presenting the state of the art and the on-going developments in Multi-Beam Antennas (MBAs) and Beam-Forming Networks (BFNs). MBAs find application in several fields including communications, remote sensing (e.g. radars, radiometers, etc.), electronic surveillance and defense systems, science (e.g. multibeam radio telescopes), RF navigation systems, etc. The BFN plays an essential role in any antenna system relaying on a set of radiating elements to generate a beam. The course will cover both theoretical and practical aspects for the following topics:
Giovanni Toso (S’93, M’00, SM’07) received the Laurea Degree (summa cum laude) and the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Florence, Florence, Italy, in 1992 and 1995, respectively. In 1996 he was visiting scientist at the Laboratoire d'Optique Electromagnétique, University of Aix-Marseille III, France. From 1997 to 1999 he was a Post Doctoral student at the University of Florence. In 1999 he was a visiting scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). In the same year he received a scholarship from Thales Alenia Space (Rome, Italy) and he has been appointed researcher in a Radioastronomy Observatory of the Italian National Council of Researches (CNR). Since 2000 he is with the Antenna and Submillimeter Section of the European Space and Technology Centre of the European Space Agency, ESA ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. He has been initiating and contributing to several R&D activities on satellite antennas based on arrays, reflectarrays, constrained lenses and reflectors. G. Toso has co-authored more than 75 technical papers published in peer reviewed professional journals, more than 230 papers published in international conferences’ proceedings, and more than 15 international patents. In 2009 he has been coeditor of the Special Issue on Active Antennas for Satellite Applications in the International Journal of Antennas and Propagation. G. Toso is a co-guest editor together with Dr. R. Mailloux of the Special Issue on “Innovative phased array antennas based on non-regular lattices and overlapped subarrays” published on the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation in 2014. G. Toso has been an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation from 2013 to 2016.
Piero Angeletti (IEEE M’07, SM’13) received the Laurea degree in Electronics Engineering from the University of Ancona (Italy) in 1996, and the PhD in Electromagnetism from the University of Rome “La Sapienza” (Italy) in 2010. His 17 years experience in RF Systems engineering and technical management encompasses conceptual/architectural design, trade-offs, detailed design, production, integration and testing of satellite payloads and active antenna systems for commercial/military telecommunications and navigation (spanning all the operating bands and set of applications) as well as for multifunction RADARs and electronic counter measure systems. Dr. Angeletti is currently member of the technical staff of the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) of the European Space Agency, in Noordwijk (The Netherlands). He is with the Radio Frequency Systems, Payload and Technology Division of the ESA Technical and Quality Management Directorate which is responsible for RF space communication systems, instrumentation, subsystems, equipment and technologies. In particular he oversees ESA R&D activities related to flexible satellite payloads, RF front-ends and on-board digital processors. Dr. Angeletti authored/co-authored over 200 technical reports, book chapters and papers published in peer reviewed professional journals and international conferences’ proceedings.
Abstract: This short course gives the participants an overview of the application, implementation and design of current and future base station antennas for mobile communications from 1G to 5G. In particular It is aimed at microwave, RF- and antenna engineers in the wireless area, but also useful for researchers looking for relevant research topics and system engineers needing a deeper understanding of the antenna component of their system. The course explains underlying theoretical and practical implementation aspects of base station antennas in mobile communication networks of today and in 5G networks.
The course is divided into eight parts:
(i) Introduction to and Fundamentals of Base station antennas
(ii) Beam Shaping for Cellular Networks
(iii) Dualband, Multi-band and array types
(iv) Diversity and MIMO implementation in 4G
(v) Multi beam antennas
(vi) 5G Systems, scenarios and frequency bands
(vii) MIMO and massive MIMO antennas in 5G
(viii) Radio waves and health issues in 5G
In the first three parts the fundamental parameters of a base station antenna are discussed in the context of radio network design. In particular we discuss parameters such as gain, radiation patterns, frequency bands and power handling and put them in the context of cell planning, propagation and capacity.
In the fourth and fifth parts of the course we give an overview of the underlying theory of diversity, MIMO and multi beam antenna systems. In particular we look in detail at the implementation of multiple antennas in the various releases of the 3GPP standard.
In the final parts, we discuss 5G Systems, scenarios and frequency bands, and the various multiple antenna and massive MIMO concepts that have been developed and integrated into the 3GPP 5G standards and are to be deployed around the world already in the year 2018. However, we also discuss the health issues related to deploying antennas with high gain narrow band beam in the mm wave and 3.5GHz bands.
Bio: Claes Beckman is the antenna systems engineering professor and the founding director of the research center wireless@kth. He has more than 30 years of experience from both academia and the wireless and radar industries. From 1983 to 1988 he was a microwave design engineer with Ericsson, designing receiver systems for radars. Between 1989 and 1994 he was a PhD student in Applied Electron Physics at Chalmers. His thesis dealt with antennas for microwave hyperthermia. From 1994 to 2001 he was a research manager at the Swedish antenna specialist Allgon designing terminal- and base station antennas for mobile communications. 2001 he founded wireless@kth, the center for wireless systems at KTH, the Royal Institute of Technology. In 2004 he was appointed professor in microwave engineering at the University of Gävle and in 2013 appointed professor of antenna systems engineering at KTH. He has published +100 journal articles and conference reports, holds several patents and has authored numerous inputs to ETSI and the 3GPP committees. He was KTH’s Principal Investigator in the “5G” EU-project METIS. He is the adviser of more than 50 M.Sc., 7 licentiate and 3 PhD thesis. He is a co-founder of the high tech start-up InCoax, a technical adviser to Icomera and a member of the board of Directors of Allgon (public).
Abstract: The course gives an introduction to the design and analysis of single and dual reflector antennas, center-fed as well as offset. After a review of the analysis methods commonly employed for space- and Earth-station reflector antennas, the basic design principles are presented. First, single and dual spot-beam antennas are considered with the relation between size, feed illumination, directivity, and sidelobe level. Second, the influence of blockage by struts, subreflector, and feed is discussed. Third, the origin of cross polarization in offset designs is addressed and it is shown how to improve the polarization characteristics in dual reflector systems by employing the Mizuguchi compensation principle. Hands-on experience in reflector antenna design is obtained during the course by using the software package GRASP (participants must bring their own laptop).
Bio: Peter Meincke received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby, Denmark, in 1993 and 1996, respectively. In spring and summer of 1995, he was a Visiting Research Scientist at the Electromagnetics Directorate of Rome Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA. In 1997, he was with a Danish cellular phone company, working on theoretical aspects of radio-wave propagation. In spring and summer of 1998, he was visiting the Center for Electromagnetics Research, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, while holding a Postdoctoral position from DTU. In 1999, he became a staff member of the Department of Electromagnetic Systems, DTU. He was an Associate Professor with Ørsted-DTU, Electromagnetic Systems, DTU, where his teaching and research interests included electromagnetic theory, inverse problems, high-frequency and time-domain scattering, antenna theory, and microwave imaging. Since 2008, he has been with TICRA, Copenhagen, Denmark, where he is currently developing software for reflector antenna analysis. Dr. Meincke won the first prize award in the 1996 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Student Paper Contest in Baltimore, MD, for his paper on uniform physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents and received the R.W.P. King Paper Award in 2000 for his paper ''Time-domain version of the physical theory of diffraction'' published in IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, February, 1999.
Payam Nayeri, Fan Yang, Atef Elsherbeni
Abstract: This proposed curriculum for this course will be offered in two parts. In the first part, the history of reflectarray antenna development is first reviewed and then basic theories for analysis and design of reflectarray antennas are presented in detail. This section of the course builds the fundamental knowledge one needs to have in order to understand the governing dynamics of a reflectarray antenna system, and efficiently design and analyze reflectarray antennas. The second part of the course is intended for researchers that have a good knowledge of the basic theories in reflectarray, and aim at designing reflectarray antennas for specific applications/operations. This part starts with a discussion on bandwidth limitation and solutions for broadband designs, and afterwards several advanced application oriented topics in reflectarray antennas will be presented. More in detail, the following material will be presented in this short course.
Part I: Basics of Reflectarray Antennas
• Introduction and Reflectarray History
• Analysis and Design of Phasing Elements
• Aperture Efficiency Analysis
• Radiation Analysis, Pattern Calculation, Loss Budget
• Practical Design Examples
Part II: Advanced Topics on Reflectarray Antennas
• Bandwidth of Reflectarray Antennas
• Multi-Band and Wideband Reflectarray Antennas
• Multi-Beam and Shaped-Beam Reflectarray Antennas
• Beam-Scanning Reflectarray Antennas
• Advanced Configurations (THz/IR, and non-planar reflectarrays)
In summary the proposed short course will effectively provide the attendees with fundamental capabilities and skills required for a researcher in the field of reflectarray antennas. These are tabulated below.
• An overview of the reflectarray antenna research history, including various implementations and state-of-the-art.
• Basic theories for design and analysis of reflectarray antennas, which will help to build up the fundamental capabilities for reflectarray research along with a wealth of design examples that can serve as a good reference for the attendees.
• Design procedures for a wide range of diversified applications, such as broadband designs, multi-band operation, multi-beam performance, beam-scanning systems, and conformal reflectarray antennas, along with illustrative examples for each design.
Payam Nayeri is an Assistant Professor with the Electrical Engineering Department at Colorado School of Mines. He received the B.Sc. in applied physics from Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, in 2004, M.Sc. in electrical engineering from Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2007, and Ph.D. in electrical engineering from The University of Mississippi, University, MS, USA, in 2012. From 2008 to 2013, he was with the Center for Applied Electromagnetic Systems Research (CAESR) at The University of Mississippi. Prior to this, he was a Visiting Researcher at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. From August 2012 to December 2013, he was a Postdoctoral Research Associate and Instructor with the Electrical Engineering Department, The University of Mississippi. From January 2014 to June 2015, he was a post-doctoral fellow with the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA. Dr. Nayeri joined the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at Colorado School of Mines as an assistant professor in July 2015. His research is in the area of antenna arrays and RF/microwave devices and systems with applications in deep space communications, microwave imaging, and remote sensing. He is a member of IEEE, Sigma Xi, and Phi Kappa Phi and has authored three books and over seventy journal articles and conference papers. He has been the recipient of several prestigious awards, including the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Doctoral Research Award in 2010, and the University of Mississippi Graduate Achievement Award in Electrical Engineering in 2011.
Fan Yang received the B.S. and M.S. degrees from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). From 1994 to 1999, he was a Research Assistant with the State Key Laboratory of Microwave and Digital Communications, Tsinghua University. From 1999 to 2002, he was a Graduate Student Researcher with the Antenna Laboratory, UCLA. From 2002 to 2004, he was a Post-Doctoral Research Engineer and Instructor with the Electrical Engineering Department, UCLA. In 2004, he joined the Electrical Engineering Department, The University of Mississippi as an Assistant Professor, and was promoted to an Associate Professor. In 2011, he joined the Electronic Engineering Department, Tsinghua University as a Professor, and has served as the Director of the Microwave and Antenna Institute since then. Dr. Yang’s research interests include antennas, periodic structures, computational electromagnetics, and applied electromagnetic systems. He has published over 200 journal articles and conference papers, five book chapters, and three books entitled Scattering Analysis of Periodic Structures Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Morgan & Claypool, 2012), Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009), and Electromagnetics and Antenna Optimization Using Taguchi’s Method (Morgan & Claypool, 2007). Dr. Yang served as an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation (2010-2013) and an Associate Editor-in-Chief of Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Journal (2008-2014). He was the Technical Program Committee (TPC) Chair of 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting. Dr. Yang has been the recipient of several prestigious awards and recognitions, including the Young Scientist Award of the 2005 URSI General Assembly and of the 2007 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory, the 2008 Junior Faculty Research Award of the University of Mississippi, the 2009 inaugural IEEE Donald G. Dudley Jr. Undergraduate Teaching Award, and the 2011 Recipient of Global Experts Program of China.
Atef Z. Elsherbeni received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Manitoba University, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in 1987. Dr. Elsherbeni was with the University of Mississippi from 1987 to 2013. He was a Finland Distinguished professor from 2009 to 2011. In August 2013 he joined the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at Colorado School of Mines where he is now the Dobelman Distinguished Chair Professor and the Electrical Engineering Department Head. His research interest includes the scattering and diffraction of EM waves, finite-difference time-domain analysis of antennas and microwave devices, field visualization and software development for EM education, interactions of electromagnetic waves with the human body, RFID and sensor integrated FRID systems, reflector and printed antennas and antenna arrays, and measurement of antenna characteristics and material properties. Dr. Elsherbeni is a Fellow member of IEEE and ACES. He is the Editor-in-Chief for ACES Journal. He was the general Chair for the 2014 APS-URSI Symposium and was the president of ACES Society from 2013 to 2015.
Yahya Rahmat-Samii, Fan Yang
Abstract: From frequency selective surfaces (FSS) to electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) ground planes, from impedance boundaries to Huygens metasurfaces, novel electromagnetic surfaces have been emerging in both microwaves and optics. Many intriguing phenomena occur on these surfaces, and novel devices and applications have been proposed accordingly, which have created an exciting paradigm in electromagnetics, the so-called “Surface Electromagnetics”. This short course will review the development of various electromagnetic surfaces, as well as the state-of-the art concepts and designs. Detailed presentations will be provided on the unique electromagnetic features of EBG ground planes and advanced metasurfaces. Furthermore, a wealth of antenna examples will be presented to illustrate promising applications of the surface electromagnetics in antenna engineering.
Yahya Rahmat-Samii is a Distinguished Professor, holder of the Northrop-Grumman Chair in electromagnetics and the past chairman of the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Before joining UCLA, he was a Senior Research Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dr. Rahmat-Samii was the elected 1995 President of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society and also appointed an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer presenting lectures internationally. He is the current Chairman of the United States National Committee of the International Union of Radio Science (USNC-URSI) representing US radio scientists to the international URSI, 2009-2011. Dr. Rahmat-Samii was elected as a Fellow of IEEE in 1985, a Fellow of IAE in 1986 and the Edmond S. Gillespie Fellow of AMTA in 2007. He also served as the Vice President of AMTA. Dr. Rahmat-Samii has authored and co-authored over 800 technical journal articles and conference papers and has written 30 book chapters and four books entitled, Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering, Implanted Antennas in Medical Wireless Communications, Electromagnetic Optimization by Genetic Algorithms, and Impedance Boundary Conditions in Electromagnetics. He is also holder of several patents. His pioneering research contributions cover diverse areas of modern analyses, designs, optimizations and measurements in electromagnetics engineering and antennas. Many of his original concepts have been used in NASA’s planetary and earth observation missions and commercial personal communication systems. Rahmat-Samii has received numerous awards, including the 1992 and 1995 Wheeler Best Application Prize Paper Award for his papers published in the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Transactions, 1999 University of Illinois ECE Distinguished Alumni Award, IEEE Third Millennium Medal, and AMTA’2000 Distinguished Achievement Award. In 2001, Rahmat-Samii was the recipient of an Honorary Doctorate in Physics from the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. In 2001, he was elected as a Foreign Member of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts. In 2002, he received the Technical Excellence Award from JPL and in 2005 he was the recipient of the URSI Booker Gold Medal. He was the recipient of the 2007 Chen-To Tai Distinguished Educator Award of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society. In 2008, he was elected to the membership of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). In 2009, he was selected to receive the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society highest award, Distinguished Achievement Award, for his outstanding career contributions. Prof. Rahmat-Samii is the designer of the IEEE AP-S logo which is displayed on all IEEE AP-S publications.
Fan Yang received the B.S. and M.S. degrees from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). From 1994 to 1999, he was a Research Assistant with the State Key Laboratory of Microwave and Digital Communications, Tsinghua University. From 1999 to 2002, he was a Graduate Student Researcher with the Antenna Laboratory, UCLA. From 2002 to 2004, he was a Post-Doctoral Research Engineer and Instructor with the Electrical Engineering Department, UCLA. In 2004, he joined the Electrical Engineering Department, The University of Mississippi as an Assistant Professor, and was promoted to an Associate Professor. In 2011, he joined the Electronic Engineering Department, Tsinghua University as a Professor, and has served as the Director of the Microwave and Antenna Institute since then.
Dr. Yang’s research interests include antennas, periodic structures, computational electromagnetics, and applied electromagnetic systems. He has published over 200 journal articles and conference papers, six book chapters, and three books entitled Scattering Analysis of Periodic Structures Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Morgan & Claypool, 2012), Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009), and Electromagnetics and Antenna Optimization Using Taguchi’s Method (Morgan & Claypool, 2007).
Dr. Yang served as an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation (2010-2013) and an Associate Editor-in-Chief of Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Journal (2008-2014). He was the Technical Program Committee (TPC) Chair of 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting. Dr. Yang has been the recipient of several prestigious awards and recognitions, including the Young Scientist Award of the 2005 URSI General Assembly and of the 2007 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory, the 2008 Junior Faculty Research Award of the University of Mississippi, the 2009 inaugural IEEE Donald G. Dudley Jr. Undergraduate Teaching Award, and the 2011 Recipient of Global Experts Program of China.